Worldwide, energy battles are based on tackling, security, access and sustainability, whilst in developing countries and in the City of Joburg, affordability of energy is an added problem and it is also critical. In view of this, we embarked on providing energy services to our communities in the most affordable manner, by minimizing grid connection, providing solar PV and gas to households. This has reduced the cost of infrastructure and increased the affordable energy service to communities. By continually improving alternative technologies, dropping the costs of solar PV and the usage/acceptance of these forms of energy sources will eventually solve the energy problem.
Clients and the market are demanding more energy efficient buildings, Eskom has been unable to develop its generating capacity at the same rate at which development has occurred in South Africa and has led to load shedding and power cuts until at least 2014. We therefore put in a place a guide aimed at Architects, Designers, Planners and Developers to focus on construction ways that minimize energy consumption through integrated design processes. The guide is also aimed at reducing the effects of: • Global warming • Reducing operating costs • Limiting the requirement for additional power • Compliance with tightening legislation and standards • Market and client demands Guidelines and Requirement on Energy Efficient Buildings The following guidelines will help, the City to ensure that we provide energy efficient buildings
Whilst we strive to achieve energy efficiency buildings, it is important not to provide unhealthy or unsafe environments. Environments should always comply with minimum standards required by legislation such as the Occupational Health and Safety Act. There is a strong relationship between environmental conditions including temperature, humidity, daylight and ventilation, and human health and productivity. Designers should therefore keep these key variables in mind whilst developing energy efficient buildings. See Energy Efficiency guide.
A good understanding of climate enables designers to develop buildings that respond and work with to create comfortable, energy efficient, environments. Climatic information for South African can be accessed from www.weathersa.co.za. It should be noted that within a city as large as Johannesburg climate will vary. It is therefore important to get climatic data for the site being developed or as near as possible to this. See Energy Efficiency guide.
A key function of buildings is to regulate the internal environment to ensure that it is comfortable and healthy for human beings. There are three main approaches to environment control, Active environmental control, mixed mode control and Passive environmental control, each of these has different energy implications. See Energy Efficiency guide
A good understanding of climate enables designers to develop buildings that respond and work with this to create comfortable, energy efficient, environments. Climatic information for South African can be accessed from www.weathersa.co.za. Our city’s climate will vary, it is therefore important to get climatic data for the site being developed, or as near as possible to this. See Energy Efficiency guide.
The building shape, size, location and materials used should be put into consideration while we aiming for energy efficient buildings. The minimizing of surface areas, use of direct sunlight for heating in cold days, use of solar heating systems, maximizing on cross ventilation, color of the building, window, glasses and doors and other energy saving ways should be prioritized by the builders. See Energy Efficiency guide
By taking into consideration the internal function of a building, natural elements for ventilation, thermal mass, color of walls and the finishes these can be used to help reduce the energy consumption in a building.
Energy costs in a typical air-conditioned building are usually at least double the energy costs and associated CO2 emissions of a building with passive environmental control. Increased capital and maintenance costs are also likely. Therefore mechanical heating and cooling systems should be avoided, where possible.
Electrical lighting systems vary widely and it is important to select the most appropriate system for your application. In particular the following issues should be considered: • Light level requirements • Safety • Energy efficiency • Colour rendering • Maintenance
Electrical geysers use up to 40% of a home’s energy consumption. Therefore reducing the consumption of hot water and using solar energy to heat water and can be make a significant contribution to energy efficiency.
Appliances and equipment used in buildings should be as energy efficient as possible. As technology in this area changes rapidly it is worth investigating the latest energy consumption features and comparing different models in order to identify the most efficient.
In order to maximize energy efficiency in buildings adequate controls and monitoring and metering systems such as metres, switches, thermostats, daylight sensors, movement sensors and timers, etc need to be in place. These enable users of buildings to only use electrical systems or parts of electrical systems when they are needed. It also enables users to track energy consumption and develop targets and strategies to reduce this over time.